There was time when you could perform a reverse telephone lookup on Google by entering a telephone number as a keyword preceded by the term "phonebook:" on your keyword. For instance, if you wanted do a reverse lookup for a telephone number (123) 456-7890, your keyword that you enter on Google's search box would be "phonebook:1234567890." It used to work only for landline numbers.
This service was very controversial because people didn't want their identity to be accessible to people so easily. Google did have an option that people could use to opt-out from Google's Phonebook search, but many people didn't know how to use it. Eventually, when the voices against Phonebook kept growing and growing, Google stopped providing this service.
In today's context, the only way you can use Google to perform a reverse phone lookup is by searching for websites with that phone number as a keyword. If there are any websites in the Internet that contains any information on that phone number, Google should know about it. Hence, it will retrieve that web page. You can visit that web page and look for the information you are looking. This approach is not very efficient, and there is very little change of you getting what you are looking for.